Too much or too little gratification of desire might lead to an oral-stage fixation orally aggressive: chewing gum and the ends of pencils and orally passive: smoking, eating, kissing characterized by passivity, gullibility, immaturity and unrealistic optimism, which is manifested in a manipulative personality. The consequences of anal-stage fixation are: anal retentive obsessively organized or neat and anal expulsive reckless, careless, disorganized. For a girl it is the Electra complex according to Carl Jung , involving her daughter—mother competition for psychosexual possession of father. Unresolved psychosexual competition for the opposite-sex parent might produce a phallic-stage fixation leading a girl to become a woman who continually strives to dominate men and a boy to become an aggressive, over-ambitious, vain man. The satisfactory parental handling and resolution of the Oedipus complex and of the Electra complex are most important in developing the infantile super-ego, because, by identifying with a parent, the child internalizes morality, thereby, choosing to comply with societal rules, rather than having to reflexively comply in fear of punishment. The drives are latent hidden and gratification is delayed so the child must derive the pleasure of gratification from secondary process-thinking that directs the libidinal drives towards external activities, such as schooling, friendships, hobbies, etc.
Freud's Stages of Psychosexual Development
stages of psychosexual development | Journal Psyche
How does personality develop? According to the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud , children go through a series of psychosexual stages that lead to the development of the adult personality. His theory described how personality developed over the course of childhood. While the theory is well-known in psychology, it has always been quite controversial, both during Freud's time and in modern psychology. An erogenous zone is characterized as an area of the body that is particularly sensitive to stimulation. During the five psychosexual stages, which are the oral, anal, phallic, latent and genital stages, the erogenous zone associated with each stage serves as a source of pleasure. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life.
Freud's Psychosexual Stage Theory
Freud advanced a theory of personality development that centered on the effects of the sexual pleasure drive on the individual psyche. At particular points in the developmental process, he claimed, a single body part is particularly sensitive to sexual, erotic stimulation. These erogenous zones are the mouth, the anus, and the genital region. The child's libido centers on behavior affecting the primary erogenous zone of his age; he cannot focus on the primary erogenous zone of the next stage without resolving the developmental conflict of the immediate one. A child at a given stage of development has certain needs and demands, such as the need of the infant to nurse.
Freud was one of the first to infer that mental disorders could be a result of individual history, and not just physical impairment. Freud developed a complete theory of personality, composed of an interplay between psychic structures and incidents within psychosexual stages of development. Freud sparked the psychological revolution and personally trained the second generation of psychoanalysts. Sexual Impulses or more generally, life affirming impulses Libido or libidinal energy is the energy source for this impulse. Basic Life impulses are referred to as needs.